Bee Balm

Also known as Bergamot, it’s sweet smelling tubuler flowers and bright green leaves are one of the more popular and well known herb used medicinally.  It is used as a tea, or an essential oil and to aid in the treatment of skin infections, wounds and dental pains. It’s leaves can be a substitute for mint and Native American use it as a seasoning.

On of the more fragrant plants to have in your garden it makes a great dried flower for sachets and is a popular choice in your yard for bees, butterflies and hummingbirds.

Bee Balm can be divided every 2-3 years when the center of you plant begins to die out. Remove the plant clump and divide of the healthier edges for replanting while discarding the center.  Cut the plant each fall almost to the ground to help with its mildew troubles.

Bee Balm

Monarda didyma

  • Light Exposure: Sun-partial shade
  • Soil Type: Rich, moist, acidic
  • Height: 1-4′
  • Width: Up to 2′
  • Bloom Time: Mid to late Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Pink, white, purple, red
  • Foliage Colour: Dark green
  • Pests and Disease: Mildew
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Fragrant, cut flowers, attracts hummingbirds and butterflies
  • Zone: 3-9

Example Varieties:

Basil

Basil

Ocimum basilicum

 

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Well draining
  • Height: 1-3′
  • Width: 1-3′
  • Bloom Time: n/a
  • Bloom Colour: n/a
  • Foliage Colour: Green
  • Pests and Disease: Fusarium wilt, slugs, grasshoppers
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, containers
  • Special Features: Dried, Easy to grow
  • Zone: 2-11

Example Varieties:

Celandine

Celandine

Chelidonium majus

  • Light Exposure: Partial-full shade
  • Soil Type: Well draining
  • Height: 12-36″
  • Width: 12-36″
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Yellow
  • Foliage Colour: Green
  • Pests and Disease: Mites, root rot, stem rot, leaf spot, rust
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, containers
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage, dried
  • Zone: 6-9

Example Varieties:

Chives

Chives

Allium schoenoprasum

  • Light Exposure: Sun-partial shade
  • Soil Type: Well draining
  • Height: 8-18″
  • Width: 8-12″
  • Bloom Time: Mid Spring to early Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Pink, lavender
  • Foliage Colour: Green/blue, grass-like
  • Pests and Disease: Trouble free
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, containers
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage, fragrant, attracts butterflies
  • Zone: 3-10

Example Varieties:

Comfrey

Comfrey

Symphytum officinale

  • Light Exposure: Sun-partial shade
  • Soil Type: Rich, organic
  • Height: 30-60″
  • Width: 1-2′
  • Bloom Time: Late Spring to Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Violet, pink, yellow
  • Foliage Colour: Dark green
  • Pests and Disease: Comfrey rust
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage, fragrant
  • Zone: 4-9

Example Varieties:

Common Rue

Common Rue

Ruta graveolens

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Well draining
  • Height: 20″
  • Width: 15″
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Green/yellow-toxic
  • Foliage Colour: Gray, blue/green
  • Pests and Disease: Root rot
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage, drought tolerant
  • Zone: 5-9

Example Varieties:

Garlic

Garlic

Allium sativum

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Light, well draining
  • Height: 12-32″
  • Width: 12-16″
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: White, pale pink
  • Foliage Colour: Blue/green
  • Pests and Disease: Slugs, onion rot, virus, nematodes
  • Landscape Uses: Bed, borders
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage, fragrant
  • Zone: 6-10

Example Varieties:

Chamomile

Roman Chamomile is considered the true chamomile, a perennial herb used extensively for  tea and stomach rememdies while it’s annual cousin the German Chamomile can be used similarily however has to be replanted each year.  If you don’t want either plant self seeding make sure you dead head it’s daisy like blooms.  If you wish to make tea at home harvest just the petals, with 1 tsp dried being just enough per cup.

Divide Roman Chamomile in the early spring to produce more plants for harvesting.

Chamomile

German Chamomile- Matricaria recutita

Roman Chamomile- Chamaemelum nobile

  • Light Exposure: Sun-partial shade
  • Soil Type: Well draining
  • Height: 6-24″
  • Width: 3-18″
  • Bloom Time: Spring to Fall
  • Bloom Colour: White with yellow center
  • Foliage Colour: Green
  • Pests and Disease: Trouble free
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, containers, groundcover, slopes
  • Special Features: Fragrant, Attracts butterflies, drought tolerant
  • Zone: 4-9

Example Varieties:

Great Burdock

Great Burdock

Arctium lappa

  • Light Exposure: Partial shade
  • Soil Type: Moist, hummus rich
  • Height: 5-7′
  • Width: 4′
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Mauve
  • Foliage Colour: Green
  • Pests and Disease: Trouble free
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage
  • Zone: 3-10

Example Varieties:

Horehound

Horehound

Marrubium vulgare

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Dry, well draining
  • Height: 20″
  • Width: 20″
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Pink, purple
  • Foliage Colour: Gray/green
  • Pests and Disease: Plume moth
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Fragrant, drought tolerant
  • Zone: 3-10

Example Varieties:

Lavender

Lavender

Lavandula sp.

 

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Dry, well draining
  • Height: 1-3′
  • Width: 1-3′
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Purple, pink, white
  • Foliage Colour: Bluish green
  • Pests and Disease: Rot, fungus, caterpillars
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, groundcover, slopes
  • Special Features: Fragrant, cut and dried flowers, drought tolerant, attracts birds, butterflies and hummingbirds
  • Zone: 5-10

Example Varieties:

Lavender-scented Thyme

Lavender-scented Thyme

Thymus thracicus

  • Light Exposure: Sun-partial shade
  • Soil Type: Moist, well draining
  • Height: 6-12″
  • Width: 15-18″
  • Bloom Time: Mid Summer to early Fall
  • Bloom Colour: Lavender
  • Foliage Colour: Green/blue, green
  • Pests and Disease: Botrytis, aphids, spider mites, root rot
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, groundcover
  • Special Features: Fragrant, drought tolerant, attracts birds and butterflies
  • Zone: 5-9

Example Varieties:

Lemon Balm

Lemon Balm

Melissa officinalis

  • Light Exposure: Sun-partial shade
  • Soil Type: Moist, well draining
  • Height: 24-36″
  • Width: 18″
  • Bloom Time: Summer to early Fall
  • Bloom Colour: White
  • Foliage Colour: Green
  • Pests and Disease: Mint rust, verticillium wilt
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Fragrant, dried
  • Zone: 5-9

Example Varieties:

Lemongrass

Lemongrass

Cymbopogon citratus

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Moist, well draining
  • Height: 3-5′
  • Width: 1′
  • Bloom Time: n/a
  • Bloom Colour: n/a
  • Foliage Colour: Green, red/green, yellow/green
  • Pests and Disease: Spider mites, leaf blight, nematodes, caterpillars
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Fragrant, attractive foliage
  • Zone: 9-11

Example Varieties:

Marsh Mallow

Marsh Mallow

Althaea officinalis

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Rich, moist
  • Height: 4-7′
  • Width: 4′
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Pale pink, white with purplish red stamens
  • Foliage Colour: Gray/green
  • Pests and Disease: Slugs, beetles, rust, caterpillar
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage
  • Zone: 3-10

Example Varieties:

Lovage

Lovage

Levisticum officinale

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Fertile, moist, well draining
  • Height: 7′
  • Width: 40″
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Yellow/green
  • Foliage Colour: Dark green
  • Pests and Disease: Fungus, leaf miners, aphids
  • Landscape Uses: Beds
  • Special Features: Edible
  • Zone: 3-10

Example Varieties:

Mint

‘Sister Julie’s Wintergreen’

Probably one of the easiest yet most frustrating herbs to grow in your garden, Mint is an incredibly rewarding yet prolific plant.  For good reason gardeners encourage anyone growing Mint to do so in a contained way.  Planter boxes, pots, raised container beds; they will all give you an abundant crop of this heady and fragrant herb in flavours as unique as pineapple, chocolate or orange without the fear of it over taking your space with it’s wide spreading root system called ‘runners’. Just dropping a rouge root onto your lawn or soil can result in fresh growth and a never ending battle you surely can’t win.

Unless you are planning to open a mojito factory take heed and get your mint contained.

Mint

Mentha sp.

  • Light Exposure: Sun-partial shade
  • Soil Type: Fertile, moist
  • Height: 12″-6′
  • Width: 2″-5′
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Purple, white
  • Foliage Colour: Green, gray/green, spotted
  • Pests and Disease: Mint rust, caterpillars, rot
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Fragrant, dried
  • Zone: 3-10

Example Varieties:

Mother of Thyme

Mother of Thyme

Thymus praecox ssp. arcticus

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Light, hummus-rich
  • Height: 2″
  • Width: 24″
  • Bloom Time: Late Spring to mid Summer
  • Bloom Colour: White, pink, purple
  • Foliage Colour: Dark green
  • Pests and Disease: Aphids, spider mites, botrytis, root rot
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, groundcover, slopes
  • Special Features: Fragrant, spreading
  • Zone: 5-9

Example Varieties:

Oregano

Oregano

Origanum vulgare

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Well draining
  • Height: 1-2′
  • Width: 2-4′
  • Bloom Time: Summer to Fall
  • Bloom Colour: White, pinkish purple
  • Foliage Colour: Green
  • Pests and Disease: Trouble free
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, containers, slopes, groundcover
  • Special Features: Dried, fragrant, attracts butterflies, drought tolerant
  • Zone: 5-11

Example Varieties:

Parsley

Parsley

Petroselinum crispum

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Well draining
  • Height: 8-24″
  • Width: 8-24″
  • Bloom Time: Mid to late Summer
  • Bloom Colour: White
  • Foliage Colour: Green
  • Pests and Disease: Caterpillars, fungus
  • Landscape Uses: Containers, beds, borders
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage, dried, attracts butterflies
  • Zone: 4-9

Example Varieties:

Peppermint

Peppermint

Mentha x piperita

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Fertile, moist, well draining
  • Height: 24-36″
  • Width: 36″
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Pink, purple
  • Foliage Colour: Green, variegated with pink/white
  • Pests and Disease: Mint rust, caterpillars, rot
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Spreading, fragrant, dried
  • Zone: 3-9

Example Varieties:

Purslane

Purslane

 Portulaca grandiflora

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Any
  • Height: 3-8″
  • Width: 1′
  • Bloom Time: Summer to early Fall
  • Bloom Colour: Red, orange, yellow, pink, white
  • Foliage Colour: Succulent green
  • Pests and Disease: Aphids, thrip,white rust
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, containers, groundcover
  • Special Features: Drought tolerant
  • Zone: 2-11

Example Varieties:

Rosemary

Rosemary

Rosemaryinus officinalis

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Well draining
  • Height: 1-6′
  • Width: 2-4′
  • Bloom Time: Summer
  • Bloom Colour: Pink, purple
  • Foliage Colour: Green
  • Pests and Disease: Mildew
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders, containers
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage, fragrant, dried, winter interest, attracts birds and butterflies, drought tolerant
  • Zone: 6-10

Example Varieties:

Sage

‘Purpurascens’

Edible Sage is probably one of my favorite herbs to have in the garden and the kitchen. You can fully harvest the plant up to three times ( once in it’s first establishing year) and each plant lasts about 4 to 5 years.  It doesn’t divide well so generally start your Sage using cuttings or seed.

In medieval times, Sage was used as a post meal digestive while Egyptian women drank Sage tea for fertility.  The flavours available go well past the classic with varieties that include orange, chocolate and pineapple.  These plants don’t enjoy heavy fertile soils so keep it out of your vegetable garden althoughwith it’s gray-green to burgundy leaves it would fit into any perennial garden with ease.

Sage

Salvia officinalis

  • Light Exposure: Sun
  • Soil Type: Well draining, moist
  • Height: 30″
  • Width: 36″
  • Bloom Time: Spring
  • Bloom Colour: White, purple, pink
  • Foliage Colour: Gray/green, purplish
  • Pests and Disease: Aphids, slugs, spider mites, thrips, leaf spot, rust, root rot, powdery mildew
  • Landscape Uses: Beds, borders
  • Special Features: Attractive foliage, dried, fragrant
  • Zone: 5-10

Example Varieties: